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甘肃专升本公共课英语词汇及常见搭配例题重点

2019年07月22日来源:甘肃专升本网作者:张小本 编辑:张小本 浏览:000挑错 投稿

甘肃专升本公共课英语考试大纲要求考生掌握约3000个基础英语单词和相应的常用词组。

百万彩票以下是词汇考试常见的单词和词组搭配。

构词法

英语的构词方法有三:合成(composition),派生(derivation)和转换(conversion)。

一、合成

合成:合两个或两个以上的词而成为一个新词,这种构词的方法叫做合成。

1. 复合名词的主要构成方式

1)名词+名词

百万彩票classroom 教室, newspaper 报纸

2)形容词+名词

blackboard 黑板,highway 公路,

3)动词+名词

break-water防波堤

4)副词+名词

outbreak爆发, overcoat 大衣

5)代词+名词

百万彩票he-goat公山羊, she-wolf 母狼

6)动词+副词

break-down崩溃

7)名词+介词短语

百万彩票editor-in-chief 总编辑, father-in-law岳父

2. 复合形容词的主要构成方式

1)名词+形容词

snow-white 雪白的,world-wide全世界的

2)形容词+形容词

bitter-sweet 又苦又甜的,blue-green 绿里发蓝的

3)副词+形容词

ever-green 常绿的

4)名词+分词

snow-covered 白雪盖着的,hand-made 手工制作的

5)形容词+分词

good-looking 好看的

6)副词+分词

百万彩票well-meaning 好意的,well-informed消息灵通的

7)形容词+名词

second-hand旧的,用过的,第二手的

8)形容词+名词+-ed

open-minded 胸襟开阔的,white-haired白发的

9)数词+名词+(-ed)

two-faced 两面派的,

百万彩票3. 复合动词的主要构成方式

1)副词+动词

百万彩票overcome 克服, uphold支持,主张

2)名词+动词

sun-bathe行日光浴

二、派生

在一个单词前或后加上一个词缀,变成一个新词,这种构词的方法叫做派生,词缀有前缀和后缀两种,加在单词前的词缀,叫前缀,加在单词后的词缀,叫后缀。

1.前缀  现将最常用的一些前缀(按字母顺序)举例如下:

anti- 反对

anti-Japanese war抗日战争

arch- 主要的

百万彩票arch-enemy 主要敌人

auto- 自动的

automobile 小汽车,  autobiography自传

bi- 双

百万彩票bicycle 自行车,bilingual 用两种语言的

by- 在旁

百万彩票bystander 旁观者,by-product副产品

co- 共同

百万彩票co-operation合作,co-existence 共处

counter- 反

counter-attack 反攻,

de- 除去,否定

decentralization分散,不集中

dis- 否定

discover发现, disorder混乱,杂乱

百万彩票en-, em- 使成为

enable使能够,enslave奴役,encourage鼓励

ex- 前

ex-president前任主席、总统或大学校长

extra- 外

extraordinary非常的,格外的

百万彩票for-, fore- 先,前,预

forward向前,foresee预见,forearm前臂

for- 禁,弃

forbid禁止,forget忘记

百万彩票in-, il-, im-, ir- 不,非

百万彩票informal 非正式的,incomplete不完全的, irregular不规则的

百万彩票inter- 间,相互

interview会见

mal- 恶

maltreat 虐待

micro- 微

microscope显微镜

mid- 中

百万彩票mid-night半夜, mid-autumn中秋的

mis- 误

misunderstand 误会, misuse误用

multi- 多

百万彩票multi-national 多民族的

non- 非,不

百万彩票nonexistent不存在的

post- 后于

post-war 战后的,

pre- 先于

百万彩票pre-war 战前的

pro- 赞成,亲善

百万彩票pro-American 亲美的

re- 重,再,复

review 复习

sub- 下,次

百万彩票subdivide细分,再分

百万彩票super- 上,超

super-structure 上层建筑

tele- 远

telephone 电话,telescope望远镜,television电视

百万彩票trans- 横过,转移

transformation改造,translate翻译

un- 不

百万彩票unable不能的,unimportant不重要的,untrue不真实的

uni- 一、单

uniform 划一的

2.名词后缀

-age状态,集合

marriage婚姻,shortage缺少,village村庄

-an 人

百万彩票American美国人,Italian意大利人,意大利语,African非洲人

百万彩票-ance, -ancy性质,状态

百万彩票importance重要性,significance意义

-ant, -ent 人

assistant助手,助教, student学生

-ation, -ition 动作,状态

百万彩票determination决心,industrialization工业化,preparation准备

-craft 技巧,工艺

handicraft手工艺

百万彩票-dom (状态,领界)

freedom自由,kingdom王国

-ee (被动)

employee雇员

-eer 人

engineer工程师, volunteer志愿者

百万彩票-ence, -ency(抽象名词)

dependence依靠,不独立,excellence卓越

百万彩票-er 人,动作者

fighter战士,worker工人,writer作家,harvester收割机

-ese 人,语言

Chinese中国人,中文,Japanese日本人,日文

-ess 女性

百万彩票actress女演员,princess公主,hostess女主人,女乘务员(飞机上)

-ful 充满

百万彩票handful一把,armful一抱(这些词亦可作为复合词看)

-hood 身份,境遇,状态

百万彩票childhood童年,likelihood可能性

-ian 人

musician音乐家,technician技术员

-ity (抽象名词)

百万彩票possibility可能性,capability能力

-man 人

Englishman英国人,postman邮递员(这些词亦可作为复合词看)

-ment 运动,结果

百万彩票movement运动,development发展

-ness 状态,性质

kindness和善,carefulness小心

百万彩票-or 人,动作者

百万彩票actor男演员, editor 编辑,tractor拖拉机

百万彩票-ry, -ery 行为,工作,性质,工作地点,货物种类,境遇等

百万彩票bravery勇敢,nursery托儿所,cookery烹调

百万彩票-ship 状态,身分

百万彩票friendship友谊,hardship苦难

-tion 动作,状态

attention注意,action行动,revolution革命

-ty (抽象名词)

百万彩票cruelty残酷, loyalty忠实

-ure 结果,动作

pleasure快乐,pressure压力

3.形容词后缀

百万彩票-able,-ible能够

百万彩票unforgettable难忘的,responsible负责的

-al 的

cultural文化的,national国家的

百万彩票-an (地,人)的

百万彩票Russian 俄罗斯的,俄罗斯人的,American美国的,美国人的

百万彩票-ed 有,象

talented有才华的

-en 的

golden金色的,wooden木制的

-ern (表示方向的)

northern北方的,eastern东方的,southern南方的,western西方的

-ese (地,人)的

Chinese中国的,中国人的,Japanese日本的,日本人的

-ful 充满

careful小心的,beautiful美丽的,powerful强有力的

-ic, -ical 的

百万彩票economic经济的,political政治的,grammatical语法的

百万彩票-ish 属于,稍微

bookish书本气的,yellowish稍黄的,selfish自私的,childish幼稚的

百万彩票-ive 性,倾向

百万彩票active 积极的, collective集体的

-less 无

百万彩票fearless无所畏惧的,careless不小心的,useless无用的,meaningless无意义的

-like 如

childlike儿童般的(亦可作为复合词看)

-ly 品质,的

百万彩票friendly友好的,weekly每星期的,manly丈夫气的,daily每天的

-ous 多

nervous神经紧张的,dangerous危险的

-some 引起,适于,易于

troublesome烦人的,tiresome(令人感到厌倦的)

-ward 向

backward落后的

-y 充满,性质

rainy雨的,snowy雪的,handy手巧的,便于使用的

4.动词后缀

-ate

百万彩票isolate使孤立,

-en

百万彩票deepen加深,strengthen加强

-fy

simplify简化,classify分类

百万彩票-ize, -ise

百万彩票industrialize工业化

5. 副词后缀

-ly

carefully小心地,beautifully美丽地,quickly迅速地

-ward, -wards向

forward向前,backward向后,upwards向上,downwards向下

-wise 方式

likewise同样地,otherwise否则,用另一种方式

百万彩票三、转换

转换 将一个单词由某一种词类转用为另一种词类,这就叫做转换。单词转换后的意义往往与未转换前的意义有密切的联系。

1.名词转化为动词

百万彩票elbow 由“肘”转义为“用肘推挤”

back 由“背,后面”转义为“支持,后退”

2.形容词转化为动词

百万彩票slow 由“慢”转义为“放慢”

3.动词转化为名词

to take a walk 散步

to have a look 看一看

百万彩票to have a try  试一试

4.形容词转化为名词

the wounded 受伤的人们, the beautiful美丽的东西,the blind盲人们

5.其他词类转化为名词

a must必须做的事情,ups and downs高低起伏,ins and outs问题的底细

典型例题

考试的重点是词汇之间的搭配,和近义词之间的区别。

1. Driving a car is not as difficult as you imagine, if you ________ the rules.

A. depend on B. turn to C. put up D. stick to

depend on 依靠、依赖

turn to 转向某人,turn to sb.向某人求助

put up with 容忍、忍受

stick to 遵守

答案 D

百万彩票2. In my opinion, the changing job market will ______ people many difficulties.

A. find B. bring C. take D. get

find 找到

bring 带来

take 拿走

get 得到

答案 B

3. Since the two restaurants ________ almost the same food and service, it doesn't matter where you stop to eat.

A. offer B. cook C. prepare D. afford

offer 提供

cook 烹饪

prepare 准备

afford 付钱

答案 A

4. When he applied for a _______ in the office of the local newspaper, he was told to see the manager.

A. profession B. position C. career D. location

profession职业

百万彩票position 职位

career 职业

location 方位

She chose an academic career. 答案 B

百万彩票5. Margaret was so ________ for news of her lost child that she was almost driven mad.

A. careful B. responsible C. thirsty D. hostile

百万彩票careful 仔细的

百万彩票responsible 负责的

百万彩票thirsty 极度渴望的

hostile 敌意的

答案 C

百万彩票6. It is not polite to ________ when someone is making a speech at a meeting like this.

A. turn up B. cut in C. speak out D. stand by

turn up 来到,露面

cut in 打断

speak out 大声说

百万彩票stand by 站到……旁边

答案 B

7. The boss _______ angry when I spoke to him on the phone.

A. sounded B. looked C. grew D. talked

百万彩票sounded 听起来 looked 看起来 grew 变得 talked 谈话 答案 A

百万彩票8. All of her living cost ________2,000 yuan each month.

百万彩票A. gets to B. equals to C. arrives at D. comes at

百万彩票get to 到达某地

equal的用法:

equal: adj. be equal to sth./doing sth. 对某事有力量,勇气,能力等, 能胜任

eg. She feels equal to the task. 她认为能胜任该项工作。

He's equal to the occasion. 他能应付这一局面。

百万彩票He doesn't seems equal to meeting out demance

百万彩票equal: v. equal sb./ sth. (in sth.) 与某人(某事物)相同或相等

eg. He is equaled by no one in kindness. 没有人比他更善良。)

arrived at+地点状语 到达某处

百万彩票comes at 达到

答案 D

百万彩票9. Her face is _________ to me, but I can't remember where I saw her.

百万彩票A. similar B. friendly C. alike D. familiar

similar 相似的 friendly 友好的 alike 相像的

familiar 熟悉的 答案 D

10. Jump in the car. There's enough ________ for you.

A. place B. seat C. room D. space

place 地方 seat 座位 room 空间 space 宇宙空间 place 指具体地点 答案 C

11. It wasn't an accident. He did it on ________.

A. reason B. determination C. purpose D. intention

reason 原因 determination 决心 on purpose 故意 intention 目的 答案 C

百万彩票12. You'll have to pay for the holiday in _______, I'm afraid.

A. front B. advance C. ahead D. forward

百万彩票front 具体位置空间的前方 in advance 提前 ahead 在……之前,不和in 连用

forward 向前 答案 B

百万彩票13. The bookstore hasn't ordered ________ textbooks for all the students in the course.

A. enough B. plenty C. as much as D. a great deal of

enough 修饰名词,在名词之前

plenty+of as much as 不能修饰名词

a great deal of 修饰不可数名词。 答案 A

百万彩票14. As I didn't have any experience, I was ________ problems.

百万彩票A. likely to have B. probably having

百万彩票C. probable to have D. likely having

be likely to do 很可能有……

probably 不接doing接to do

百万彩票it's brobable for sb. that

答案 A

15. David may ________ , but we must go at once.

A. stay late B. stay lately C. stay a little D. have stayed very late

stay late

百万彩票stay lately lately 近来 答案 A

百万彩票16. I don't think that your watch is _______.

A. worth of the price B. worth the price

百万彩票C. worthy of the price D. worthy to buy

worthy: adj. a. be worthy of sth.

eg. Her achievements are worthy of the highest praise. 她的成就值得给予最高奖赏。

百万彩票b. be worthy to do sth.

百万彩票eg. She said she was not worthy to accept the honour they had offered her.

worth: adj. a. be worth + n.

eg. Our house is worth about $ 60,000.

b. be worth doing

eg. The book is worth reading. =It's worth reading the book.

n. 值某金额的量 The thieves stole $ 1 million worth of jewellery.

D选项正确答案:worthy to be bought 答案 B

百万彩票17. _________, it's very tidy.

A. As her room is small B. Small as her room is

百万彩票C. As small her room is D. Small as her room

as引导让步状语从句,句子需要倒状。Young as he is, Jack is already familiar with most of the books 答案 B

百万彩票18. As _______ as possible he opened the door and went out into the cold December night.

百万彩票A. quiet B. quietly C. quite D. quietly

quiet adj.安静的 答案 B

quite adv.十分,很;quite big

19. I felt thoroughly ________ in the crowded Manhattan.

A. wondered B. lost C. missed D. separated

百万彩票wondered 怀疑 lost 迷路 missed 丢失 separated 分开 答案 B

20. The city has decided to _______ all the old buildings.

A. break away from B. get rid of C. come up with D. knock down

break away from 1.挣脱 The prisoner broke away from his guards. 2. 脱离某政党、政府等 A province has broken away to form a new state.

百万彩票get rid of: 摆脱 The shop ordered 20 copies of the book and now it can't get rid of them.

百万彩票come up with sth.: 找到或提出(答案、办法等)She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.

百万彩票knock down: 拆除 These old houses are going to be knocked down. 答案 D

百万彩票21. When the school master is away, Mr. Johnson will be ______ the whole school.

百万彩票A. in charge of B. in favor of C. in honor of D. in regard to

百万彩票in charge of: 处于控制或支配的地位, 负责

百万彩票Who's in charge here?这儿谁负责?

百万彩票He was left in charge of the shop while the manager was away.

in favor of sb./sth.: 支持某人/某事

百万彩票Was he in favor of the death penalty?

百万彩票in honor of : 出于对某人的敬意

百万彩票a ceremony in honor of those killed in battle 为纪念阵亡将士举行的仪式

in/with regard to sb./sth. 关于某人/某事 I have nothing to say with/ in regard to your complaints. 答案 A

22. In his speech he _______ his experience as a teaching assistant.

A. returned to B. referred to C. stuck to D. turned to

百万彩票return sth.(to sb./sth.): 归还,放回

百万彩票She returned the bird to its cages. 她把鸟放回笼子里

Please return me my 5 yuan/ return my five yuan to me.

Refer to sb./sth.: 提到,说到或涉及到某人(某事物)

百万彩票When I said some people are stupid, I wasn't referring to you.

Don't refer to this matter again, please. 请不要再提这件事。

百万彩票stick to sth.: 坚持或维持某事物

百万彩票“Would you like some wine?”

百万彩票“No, I'll stick to beer, thanks.” 不,我还是喝啤酒吧。

turn to sb.(sth.): 向某人(某事物)寻求帮助

百万彩票She has nobody she can turn to. 她求助无门。

百万彩票The more depressed he got, the more he turned to drink. 答案 B

23. He tried his best in the first game, but was ________ by the little boy.

百万彩票A. won B. hit C. beaten D. held

A:win-won-won; 赢得

B:hit 打

C:beat 打,

百万彩票D: hold-held-held 举行 答案 C

百万彩票24. I wanted to go home but my wife _______ on going to the concert.

A. persisted B. resisted C. insisted D. intended

百万彩票persisted:persist: persist in doing sth. 坚持做某事

百万彩票He will persist in riding that dreadful bicycle. resist+n 抵抗

intend: intend to do sth. 想要做…… 答案 C

25. The government gave several good ______ for increasing the tax on cigarettes.

百万彩票A. purposes B. reasons C. questions D. problems

purpose 目的 reason 原因 question 问题 problem 问题 答案 B

26. Four people were seriously _______ in the accident.

A. injured B. damaged C. spoiled D. broken injure 受伤

百万彩票damage: 表示使被损坏的对象失去或降低其自身价值, 但不完全毁掉。

百万彩票He damaged my car with a stone.

百万彩票ruin: 常强调完全毁掉。 The storm has ruined the garden.

百万彩票spoil: 语气比ruin弱,不强调完全毁掉,表示使被害方失去其完美性。

He spoiled his painting by putting too much red paint on it.

百万彩票spoil:有时也包含最终会导致完全毁掉之义。

百万彩票He has spoiled his constitution with bad living. 答案 A

百万彩票27. He spoke so quickly that I didn't ________ what he said.

百万彩票A. listen B. catch C. miss D. receive

百万彩票listen 听 listen to catch 抓住,听到 miss 丢失 receive 收到

28. He was poor but proud, and _______ every offer of help.

A. turned down B. turned on C. turned off D. turned out

turn down 拒绝 turn on 打开。turn on the light 开灯

turn off 关上。turn off the light turn out 证明为…… 答案 A

百万彩票29. In Britain, the best season of the year is probably _______ spring.

百万彩票A. later B. latter C. last D. late

百万彩票later 以后。 latter 后者 last 最后 late 晚的 答案 D

30. How ________ is it from here to the city center?

A. long B. far C. distant D. near

百万彩票how long 一段延续的时间

——How long have you studied English?

——I have studied English for 3 years (since 3 years ago)。答案 B

31. I wanted to go there by plane but I hadn't enough money to pay for the _____.

A. journey B. distance C. road D. way

百万彩票journey 旅行 distance 距离 road 道路 way 方式方法 答案A

百万彩票32. Her parents wouldn't _______ her to stay out later than 10:30 at night.

A. require B. ask C. encourage D. permit

stay out 不回家 require 要求 ask 要求 encourage 鼓励 permit 允许 答案 D

百万彩票33. Last Sunday, ________ my great surprise, I met Bullen in town.

百万彩票A. for B. to C. as D. at

百万彩票(to one's surprise 使某人感到惊奇) 答案 B

34. Most Chinese like to drink tea. But some prefer coffee ________ tea.

A. to B. with C. for D. against

prefer……to…… 答案 A

百万彩票35. I'm in no ________ this evening to listen to his silly jokes.

A. feeling B. attitude C. opinion D. mood

百万彩票feeling 感情 attitude 态度 opinion 观点 mood 情绪 答案 D

36. Tennis is a _________ invented by an Englishman a hundred years ago.

百万彩票A. play B. match C. game D. event

百万彩票play: n. 比赛,竞赛 The tennis players need total concentration during play.

match 比赛 game 运动 event 事件 答案 C

37. That's the biggest ______ he has ever told in his life.

A. talk B. speech C. lesson D. lie

百万彩票talk:give/have a talk 谈话

百万彩票speech:make/deliver a speech 做演讲

lesson:teach a lesson: 教训

百万彩票learn one's lesson: 汲取教训

lie:tell a lie

答案 D

百万彩票38. _______ that the jewels had been stolen by one of the guards.

A. It turned up B. It turned out C. It turned on D. It turned over

turn up: 露面, 来到 We arranged to meet at the cinema at 7: 30, but he failed to turn up.

百万彩票turn out: turn out to be sb./sth.; turn out that…证明是某人(某物),原来是┄┄

百万彩票She turned out to be a friend of my sister./ It turned out that she was a friend of my sister.

turn on 开灯

turn (sb./sth.) over: 翻身或翻转

She turned over and went to sleep.她转过身就睡着了。

答案 B

39. “I'm tired, but let's go.”

“Why _______ rest a while?”

A. let's B. not let's C. not D. let's not答案 C

百万彩票40. “We won't be finished until tonight.”

“And they _______.”

A. will, either B. won't, too C. will, neither D. won't, either

答案 D

41. “________?”

百万彩票“A cup of tea, please.”

百万彩票A. Do you like tea B. Do you like a cup of tea C. Would you like a cup of tea D. What would you like to drink 答案 D

42. “Do you mind if I open the window?”

百万彩票“________.” A. Sure, certainly not B. All right C. I don't know D. Not at all

答案 D

词汇考试重点

考生除在学习中扩大词汇量外,还应注意词语的搭配、近义词的区别以及由同一个词构成的不同词组之间意义的区别。

百万彩票1. The news is _______ good to be true.

A. so…that B. much C. too D. very(答案 C)

2.Don't hesitate to _______ me if you are in trouble.

百万彩票A. turn out B. turn in C. turn to D. turn up

turn out: a. 证明为 How did the party turn out? It turned out very well, thanks.

b. turn sb. out: 赶走某人 My landlord is turning me out at the end of the month.

百万彩票turn in : a. 面朝内 b. go to bed .It's late. I think I'll turn in.

百万彩票c. turn sb. in 将某人交给警方拘押。She threatened to turn him in.

百万彩票turn to: turn to sb. 向某人寻求帮助 The child turned to his mother for comfort.

turn up: 露面 We arranaged to meet at the cinema at 7, but she failed to turn up.

百万彩票近义词之间的区别在于词的内涵不同……如,汉语中的“错误”对应着英语中的mistake和fault, 但两个词的内涵不一样, mistake单纯指所犯的错误,而fault则侧重于追究责任。

百万彩票There must be some mistakes in this bill; please add up the figures again.(add up 加起来)

Whose fault is it that we're late? 我们迟到是谁的错?(责任在谁)

有的近义词之间的区别在于词性不同或在句子中的用法不同。

1.He likes _______ questions in English classes.

百万彩票A. to rise B. rising C. to raise D. to arise

rise 不及物动词;arise 不及物动词 呈现出现 A new difficulty has arisen. 出现了新困难。答案 C

2.I _________ have coffee than tea.

A. like more B. prefer C. had better D. would rather

prefer: prefer sth. to sth. 更喜欢某事物。 I prefer walking to cycling.

答案 D

百万彩票3.Mary and Jane are twin sisters. They look exactly_________.

A. like B. same C. alike D. same ones

A的正确答案应该在后面加名词。答案 C

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